Hydration and fitness | GUIDON

Hydration and fitness | GUIDON

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Dehydration is caused by not drinking enough water. The amount of water necessary to keep someone hydrated depends greatly on the weather, the amount of physical activity, and an individual’s physical fitness level. The symptoms of dehydration include lethargy, headaches and lack of energy. Photo by U.S. Army Sgt. Timothy R. Koster.

Everyone needs water, but drinking water is a habit, not a reflex.

“Thirst is a really poor indicator of hydration,” said Melissa Mahoney, an athletic trainer at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego. “People need to shift their mindset when thinking about water not so much as a reflex or an urge, but it really is a behavior.”

By the time your body actually wants to drink water, it’s already dehydrated, she said.

Dehydration results from not replacing fluids and electrolytes that are lost from illness, physical exertion or even from sitting, said Dr. Chad Hulsopple, an assistant professor of family medicine at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

“Even at rest, our body loses fluids slowly due to evaporation from the skin and moisture in the breath,” he said. “It is essential to consume fluids and electrolytes to stay hydrated even when not exercising.”

According to Hulsopple, people may experience different symptoms of dehydration aside from thirst, such as dry mouth, dry lips, headache or dizziness.

So how much water should you be drinking? On average, a person engaged in physical activity that lasts less than one hour should be drinking 16 ounces to 32 ounces of water every hour, Mahoney said.

“The easy guideline to remember is to drink half your body weight in fluid ounces,” she said, adding not to exceed more than 48 ounces of water per hour. “Your kidneys specifically can’t process the water that quickly, and if you consistently drink that much, you run the risk of hyponatremia, or an overhydrated state.”

Hyponatremia is potentially fatal.

Mahoney said the behavior of consuming water requires being mindful.

“Find what works best for you. For me, personally I’ve found I drink more water when I am drinking out of my metal water bottle with a straw,” she said, noting others may like keeping track of water intake by hour.

It’s difficult to give a blanket statement on how to know if you’re adequately hydrated because there are so many factors that contribute to each individual case and rate of fluid loss, Hulsopple said.

One simple tool to measure hydration involves urine output and color. Dark colored urine is an indication of dehydration. A well-hydrated person will urinate five to eight times a day.

“Regular urination that is pale or clear colored is a visual sign of adequate hydration,” Hulsopple said.

Whether room temperature water, sparkling water or ice water, the message is simple — just drink water.

If adding flavoring helps increase water intake, Mahoney added, “Don’t beat yourself up about that, you’re getting more fluids than you were before so those things are good.”

She cautioned, however, some substances can affect hydration, including alcohol and performance supplements like creatine.

In stressful times, water has another benefit as well. “Sipping water encourages you to regulate your breathing,” said Mahoney. “So if you’re stressed out, drinking water is going to help your body and also help your mind.”

(Editor’s note: This article has been abridged and was originally written and published by the Military Health System Communications Office at www.health.mil.)

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